Words that English Has Borrowed from Other Languages
By Elisabeth Claire
A language borrows a word (and doesn?t give it back, but keeps it) when it doesn?t have a word of its own for something new or a new idea. When the Vikings (who spoke Old Norse) came and settled in England, many words arrived with them: Anger, bag, birth, bleak, both, cake, call, club, crooked, die, drag, egg, fellow, freckle, gaze, get, hit, husband, kid, kindle, knife, law, leg, lift, loose, meek, oaf, raft, rag, raise, reindeer, root, rug, same, scalp, scare, seem, skirt, sky, snare, take, they, Thursday, tight, troll, trust, ugly, want, wand, window, wrong, wise. Half of English vocabulary came from Norman French because of the conquest in 1066.
archer, assault, bacon, bail, beef butcher, button, chivalry, comfort, court, courtesy, curfew, crime, custom, defeat, eagle, enemy, dungeon, elope, embezzle, evidence, eagle, error, fashion, gallon, felony, grammar, grief, grocer, honor, injury, joy, judge, jury, justice, lavender, leisure, liberty, lease, lever, majesty, manor, marriage, matrimony, mutton, noble, noun, nurse, occupy, odor, parliament, pedigree, perjury, pinch, platter, pleasure, pocket, pork, push, prison, quarter, question, quiet, rape, reason, recover, remedy, rent, repeal, reward, river, robe, royal, salary, salmon, search, sermon, sewer, sir, shop, slander, sail, spy, squirrel, suitor, surplus, surrender, survive, syllable, tax, toil, treason, uncle, usher, valley, veal, venison, vice, virgin, vulture. Christian monks, and later scientists, brought in many Latin words Abdomen, actor, agriculture, creditor, crisis,December, demonstrator, dictator, dilemma, diploma,distribute, doctor, dogma, drama, duplex, duplicate, echo, educator, ego, editor, elevator, emphasis, exterior, exit, enema, exterminate, extra, exterior, extreme,factor, favor,fetus,focus,formula,fungus, genius, gladiator, geranium, gusto, honor, horizon, horror, humor, icon, idea, ignoramus, illustrator, incubator, index, inertia, inferior, insomnia, instructor, inferior, inspector, investigate, janitor, labor, junior, legislate, liberate,major,minor,maximum,medium,minimum,minister,minus,minor, moderator,monitor,motor,museum, narrator, nausea, navigator, neuter,masculine, feminine, object,opera, orator, peninsula, perpetrate persecute, person, petroleum, platinum, possess, prospect, quantum, quota,radius,ratio,recipe,saliva,senator,senior, junior,simile,sinister,sinus,stadium,status,stimulus,superior,tenor,terror,thesis,translate,trio,tuba,tumor,tutor, vacuum, vapor,verbatim, vertigo, veto, vice, versa, vigor, vim, virus. Greek wasmost usefulto provide wordsforideas,medicine, drama, and government. Atlas, Bible, barbaric, biography, biology, captain, cardiac, catalyst, catastrophy, category, catholic, cell, cemetery, center, chaos, character, charisma, choir, chronic, classic, climate, code, coa comedy, comma,cost, crisis, criticism, cube, cycle, cylinder, democracy, demon, dialog, diagnosis, diagonal, diagram,diameter, cereal, cloth, echo, hypnosis, narcissus, panic, academic, acrobat, agony, air, allergy, alphabet,amnesia, amphibian, anatomy, apology, architecture, aristocrat, arithmetic, aroma, atheism, athlete,atmosphere, autobiography, dilemma, diploma, dogma, drama, dynamic, eccentric, echo, economic,ecstasy, elastic, electricity, energy, epidemic, epitaph, ether, eulogy, exodus, fable, genealogy,generosity, geography, gigantic, government, grammar, graph, gymnastics, harmony, helium, hero,
hexagon, history, holocaust, homonym, horizon, hygiene, hypocrite, idea, irony, lesbian, mania, mathematics, mechanics, megaphone, melody, metaphor, meteorology, method, microbe, microscope, monogamy,monopoly,music,mystery, narcotic, neurotic, nostalgia, nymph, ocean, octagon, odyssey,octopus, orgy, orchestra, organ, organization, orphan, palm, panacea, pandemic, panic, paradise,paragraph, parallel, paralysis, parasite, patriot, pentagon, period, pharmacy, philanthropy, phlegm,phobia, photo, photosynthesis, phrase, physics, planet, pneumonia, political, practice, problemprogram,prophet, psalm, pseudonym, psychiatry, psychology,rhapsody, rhyme,sarcastic,scene,schism, schizophrenia,school,serial,sperm,sphere,star,statistic,stigma,stomach,strategy,syllable,symbol,sympathetic,synonym,system,talent,technical,telegram,telephone,theater,toxic,tropical,tyranny
adios, albino, alfalfa, alligator, avocado, banana, barracuda, barbecue, bronco, burro, cafeteria, canary, cannibal, canyon, chihuahua, chili, chocolate, cigar, cocaine, cockroach, comrade, embargo, fiesta, filibuster, guacamole, guerrilla, hammock, hacienda, hurricane, iguana, jaguar, lasso, llama, machete, macho, maize, margarita, matador, marijuana, mesa, mosquito, negro, oregano, papaya, patio, pimento, pinata, pina colada, plaza, poncho, potato, pueblo, puma, ranch, rodeo, rumba, salsa, savanna, savvy, shack, siesta, sombrero, spaniel, stampede, stevedore, tobacco, taco, tango, tequila, tomato, toreador, tornado, tortilla, tuna, vamoose, vanilla, vigilante, yucca.
Admiral, adobe, albatross, alcohol, alkaline, almanac, alfalfa, amber, arsenal, assassin, azure, borax, caliber, candy, chemistry, cipher, coffee, cotton, crimson, divan, gauze, gazelle, gerbil, ghoul, giraffe, harem, hashish, hazard, henna, jar, lilac, lemon, lime, loofah, macramé, mafia, magazine, mattress, mocha, monsoon, mummy, muslin, nadir, orange, racket, safari, safflower, sash, sherbet, soda, sofa, sugar, tahini, talc, tariff, zero.
Words from American Indian languages: Chipmunk, igloo, kayak, moccasin, moose, papoose, pecan, powwow, squash, succotash, tepee, toboggan, tomahawk, totem, wampum, wigwam
Cosmonaut, babushka, intelligentsia, mammoth, pogrom, ruble, tchotche, kalishnikov, borsch, kasha, kefir, pirogy, glasnost, MIR, perestroika, tsar, Rodinia
Alzheimer?s disease, aspirin, blitz, concertmeister, dachshund, delicatessen, diesel, Doberman pinscher, dreck, Fahrenheit, fest, flak, frankfurter, Geiger counter, gesundheit, glitz, hamburger, hamster, kindergarten, liverwurst, Neanderthal, poltergeist, quartz, reich, Rottweiler, sauerkraut, strudel, uber, verboten, waltz, wunderbar, wunderkind, zeppelin.
Chop chop, chow, feng shui, ginkgo, ginseng, go, gung ho, hoisin, kanji, ketchup, kow tow, kumquat, kung fu, lo mein, mahjong, mu shu, shanghai, silk, soy, tai chi, tangram, tao, tea, tofu, tycoon, typhoon, wok, wonton, yen, Zen.
Bonsai, haiku, ikebana, kabuki, karaoke, manga, origami, kimono, zori, bento, daikon, dashi, ginkgo, hibachi, miso, nori, sake, sashimi, shiitake, shoyu, soba, sensei, shiatsu, soy, sukiyaki, sushi, Sudoku, tsunami, tamari, tempura, teriyaki, wasabi, Shinto, zen, akita, geiha, honcho, koi, sayonara
Artisan, balcony, bronze, cameo, caricature, carpet, cartoon, dilettante, dome, façade, figurine, fresco, gallery, graffiti, grotesque, indigo, Madonna, magenta, mask, mascara, masquerade, medal, mezzanine, model, mosaic, muslin, pastel, porcelain, replica, saloon, sienna, studio, tempera, villa, virtue, virtuoso, al dente, antipasto, bologna, broccoli, calamari, cappuccino, cauliflower, caviar, coffee, confetti, espresso, fettuccini, gusto, lasagna, linguini, lottery, macaroni, maraschino, marinara, Panini, parmesan, pasta, pepperoni, pesto, pizza, pistachio, ravioli, salami, scampi, soda, spaghetti, tiramisu, tortolini, tutti frutti, zucchini, novel, canto,
parasol, pilot, pistol, brilliant, buffalo, bulletin, cannon, caress, carnival, cash, casino, monster, nostalgia, pants, ditto, debt, disaster, extravaganza, fiasco, finale, ghetto, inferno, jeans, lottery, magazine, mafia, ballot, fascism, incognito, Machiavellian, propaganda, algebra, granite, influenza, lagoon, lava, bank, bomb, bravo, malaria medico, race, rocket, scalpel, torso, volcano, alarm, archipelago, attack, balloon, fantasia, fugue, harmonica, libretto, maestro, mandolin, oboe, opera, orchestra, piano, piccolo, pun, sonnet, stanza, alto, bassoon, cadenza, cello, diva, presto, segue, serenade, solo, sonata, trombone, tuba, violin viola, sedan, sequin, tariff, tarot, traffic, trampoline, umbrella, vista, viva, zero.
Babka, pierogy, doodle, horde, kielbasa, knish, mazurka, polonaise, polka Czardas, goulash, itsy bitsy, paprika, puli, vizsla,
Avatar, bandanna, bangle, Brahmin, bungalow, calico, cheetah, chutney, cot, cushy, guru, jungle, karma, khaki, loot, mugger, pundit, pajamas, sentry, shampoo, toddy
Kimchi, taekwondo, Hyundai, Samsung Words from African languages: Banana, banjo, basenji, bongo, bwana, chigger, chimpanzee, cola, coffee, dengue, fandango, gnu, goober, gumbo, jambolaya, jamboree, jazz, jive, jumbo, juke, kwanzaa, impala, marimba, mamba, meringue, mumbo jumbo, okra, safari, sambo, tango, tse tse, trek, voodoo, yam, zebra, zombie. Aardvark, ahoy, aloof, bamboo, bazooka, beaker, blink, blister, block, blow, bluff, Boer, boodle, boom, booze, boss, bow, brandy, brawl, bully, Brooklyn, bundle, bumpkin, buoy, bush, caboose, cockatoo, coleslaw, cookie, crimp, cruise, deck, decoy, dike, dock, domineer, dope, dredge, drug, drive, easel, etch, excuse, filibuster, freight, frolic, gas, geek, gherkin, gin, golf, grab, gruff, howitzer, hoist, hooky, kill, kink, knapsack, knickerbocker, landscape, leak, loafer, loiter, luck, mannequin, mart, measles, pickle, pinkie, pit, plug, pump, poppycock, roster, Santa Claus, schooner, scow, skate, sketch, skipper, sled, slim, sloop, slurp, smuggler, snack, snoop, splinter, split, spook, stoop, stove, tickle, trigger, tulip, walrus, wagon, wiggle, yacht, Yankee. Baroque, breeze, buccaneer, caramel, caste, cashew, china, cabin, cobra, coconut, cougar, creole, dodo, embarrass, fetish, flamingo, junk, marmalade, molasses, Negro, piranha, savvy, tapioca, teak, veranda, yam.
Babel, blintz, bris, bubkes, chutzpah, dreck, ganef, gelt, glitch, goy, haimish, kibitz, klutz, kosher, kvell, kvetch, lox,maven,mazeltov,megillah,mensche,meshuga,minyan,mishpocha, naches, nebbish, noodge, nosh, nu, nudnik, oyvey, schlemiel, schlep, schlimazel, schlock, schlub, schmaltz, schemer, schmo, schmooze, schmuck, schmaltz, schnook, shegetz, shiksa, shmendrick, shtik, shpiel, tsuris, tukhus, yarmulke, yenta, zaftig
Words are still entering English. Sometimes people know they are loan words. Other times, they do not. Here are some phrases from modern French that can still be recognized as French: a la carte, a la mode, adieu, au jus, au pair, avant-garde, ballet, belle, bon appetit, bon vivant, bon voyage, bourgeois, brica a brac brunette, bureau, cafe, carte blanche, c'est la vie, c'est magnifique, c'est la vie! chauffeur, chic, cliche, clique,coquette,crepe, croissant, critique, cul-de-sac,decoupage, deja-vu, de jour, eclair, esprit de corps,faux pas, fiance, fiancee, gauche, genre, hors d'eourves,laissez faire, layette, liaiason, mardi gras, nom de plume, rapport, RSVP, repondez, s'il vous plait,sabotage, savant, savoir-faire, vinaigrette, vis-à-vis connoisseur, debut, encore, expose, forte, naive, passe, potpourri, premier, premiere, resume, rendezvous, risque, vignette. Source: http://elizabethclaire.com
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