"To" ou "for"? Como usar essas preposições?
Você fica na dúvida, às vezes, de como usar as preposições "to" e "for"?
Como você completaria os espaços abaixo?
"Last week I sent a letter _____ Jim. He said ___ me, last month, that he had bought a present ____ me. But, in fact I haven't received anything yet, that's why I wrote a letter ___ him. I also wrote a poem ____ him. I haven't sent it, yet. I will send the poem ___ Jim when I receive the present he sent ___ me. Because I know what the present is, and the poem is about the present. Jim does nice things ____ me, he is always thinking of me. He does lots of favors ___ me, too. When I was on vacation he paid the veterinarian's bill ___ me - now I need to pay him back. I will send the money ___ his account, through the Internet. ___ me, Jim is a great friend, because he is always there ___ me! I am always there ____ him, too!"
Have you completed it?
Quanto mais você praticar inglês, melhor seu inglês vai ficar! That goes without saying, right?Aproveite esta oportunidade para fazer exercícios, checar as respostas e tirar dúvidas. Caso você não tenha ainda completado o exercício acima (já enviado a você por email, se você for um assinante LEP-Nuts), complete agora, estude as explicações abaixo, e depois confira suas respostas no final da página.
Now the explanation:
To é usado quando se expressa comunicação, ação direta, geralmente física. Enviei aquela carta para você - no sentido de que você é o destinatário e a carta vai chegar em suas mãos, é ação física direta a você - "I sent a letter to you."
For é usado quando se expressa intenção, consideração, opinião. Quando algo é feito em nome de, ou no lugar de alguém,por alguém ou pela intenção de alguém ou de algo. Enviei aquela carta para você - no sentido de "por você", "em seu lugar" (fui ao Correio e enviei a carta por você, fiz algo por você) - "I sent that letter for you, so you don't need to go to the Post Office now."
Dica para memorizar:
Fechei as portas para você = I closed the doors for you (intenção, fiz "por você") INTENÇÃO, CONSIDERAÇÃO
I closed the doors to you , significa que fechei as portas para você não entrar mais -- ('para você, as portas estão fechadas') --um ato direto a você.
INTENÇÃO - I am preparing a LEP-Nuts for you... = I am "thinking" of you, it's in "consideration" of you.
AÇÃO - And I am sending it to you ... = Now there is action toward someone or something. There is movement.
First I think of you (consideration, and usefor) then I send something to you (direct action, use to).
INTENÇÃO - What else can LEP do for you? = When LEP does things, LEP is considering you (o que LEP pode fazer por você?
AÇÃO - What can I provide to my subscribers? = I provide something directly to someone. I do something - it's action, not only intention.
INTENÇÃO - I can't speak for my neighbors, but I think this whole neighborhood needs some improvement.(não posso falar pelos meus vizinhos, em nome deles...)
AÇÃO - I can't speak to my neighbors about this... they don't care about the neighborhood. (não consigo falar com meus vizinhos sobre isso... ação direta de falar algo para alguém).
Now... check out your "to"s and "for"s in the quiz above, and see how many you did right!
How did you fill in the spaces below? ("to" or "for"?)
"Last week I sent a letter to Jim. (physical action toward someone) He said to me, (physical action toward someone) last month, that he had bought a present for me. (consideration, he was thinking of me when he bought the present) But, in fact I haven't received anything yet, that's why I wrote a letter to him (physical actiontoward someone). I also wrote a poem for him. (mental attitude, consideration, I was thinking of him when I wrote the poem). I haven't sent it, yet. I will send the poem to Jim (physical actiontoward someone) when I receive the present he sent to me (physical action towardsomeone). Because I know what the present is, and the poem is about the present. Jim does nice things for me, (thinking of me, in consideration of me) he is always thinking of me. He does lots of favors to me, too.(things he does are direct action toward me). When I was on vacation he paid the veterinarian's bill for me - (he did it on my behalf, in consideration of me) now I need to pay him back. I will send the money to his account, (physical action toward someone) through the Internet. For me, ( in my opinion, abstract, not action) Jim is a great friend, because he is always there for me!(consideration) I am always there for him, too!" (consideration, abstraction, not action)
Challenge yourself a little more, you can do it!
* What's the right job (for or to) you?
* These people are not good (for or to) me.
* This muffin is (for or to) you!
* (For or To) me, this is much easier now.
Dúvidas de gramática, cultura, expressões idiomáticas em inglês?
Drop me a line at: [email protected]
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